THE CAUSE OF THE TROUBLES
In order to come to grips at once with the question of time-
expenditure in all its actuality, I must choose an individual case
for examination. I can only deal with one case, and that case
cannot be the average case, because there is no such case as the
average case, just as there is no such man as the average man.
Every man and every man's case is special.
But if I take the case of a Londoner who works
in an office, whose
office hours are from ten to six, and who spends fifty minutes
morning and night in travelling between his house door and his
office door, I shall have got as near to the average as facts
permit. There are men who have to work longer for a living, but
there are others who do not have to work so long.
Fortunately the financial side of existence does not interest us
here; for our present purpose the clerk at a pound a week is exactly
as well off as the millionaire in Carlton House-terrace.
Now the great and profound mistake which my typical man makes in
regard to his day is a mistake of general attitude, a mistake which
vitiates and weakens two-thirds of his energies and interests. In
the majority of instances he does not precisely feel a passion for
his business; at best he does not dislike it. He begins his
business functions with reluctance, as late as he can, and he ends
them with joy, as early as he can. And his engines while he is
engaged in his business are seldom at their full "h.p." (I know
that I shall be accused by angry readers of traducing the city
worker; but I am pretty thoroughly acquainted with the City, and I
stick to what I say.)
Yet in spite of all this he persists in looking upon those hours
from ten to six as "the day," to which the ten hours preceding them
and the six hours following them are nothing but a prologue and
epilogue. Such an attitude, unconscious though it be, of course
kills his interest in the odd sixteen hours, with the result that,
even if he does not waste them, he does not count them; he regards
them simply as margin.
This general attitude is utterly illogical and unhealthy, since it
formally gives the central prominence to a patch of time and a bunch
of activities which the man's one idea is to "get through" and have
"done with." If a man makes two-thirds of his existence subservient
to one-third, for which admittedly he has no absolutely feverish
zest, how can he hope to live fully and completely? He cannot.
If my typical man wishes to live fully and completely he must, in
his mind, arrange a day within a day. And this inner day, a Chinese
box in a larger Chinese box, must begin at 6 p.m. and end at 10 a.m.
It is a day of sixteen hours; and during all these sixteen hours he
has nothing whatever to do but cultivate his body and his soul and
his fellow men. During those sixteen hours he is free; he is not a
wage-earner; he is not preoccupied with monetary cares; he is just
as good as a man with a private income. This must be his attitude.
And his attitude is all important. His success in life (much more
important than the amount of estate upon what his executors will
have to pay estate duty) depends on it.
What? You say that full energy given to those sixteen hours will
lessen the value of the business eight? Not so. On the contrary,
it will assuredly increase the value of the business eight. One of
the chief things which my typical man has to learn is that the
mental faculties are capable of a continuous hard activity; they do
not tire like an arm or a leg. All they want is change--not rest,
except in sleep.
I shall now examine the typical man's current method of employing
the sixteen hours that are entirely his, beginning with his
uprising. I will merely indicate things which he does and which I
think he ought not to do, postponing my suggestions for "planting"
the times which I shall have cleared--as a settler clears spaces in
In justice to him I must say that he wastes very little time before
he leaves the house in the morning at 9.10. In too many houses he
gets up at nine, breakfasts between 9.7 and 9.9 1/2, and then bolts.
But immediately he bangs the front door his mental faculties, which
are tireless, become idle. He walks to the station in a condition
of mental coma. Arrived there, he usually has to wait for the
train. On hundreds of suburban stations every morning you see men
calmly strolling up and down platforms while railway companies
unblushingly rob them of time, which is more than money. Hundreds
of thousands of hours are thus lost every day simply because my
typical man thinks so little of time that it has never occurred to
him to take quite easy precautions against the risk of its loss.
He has a solid coin of time to spend every day--call it a sovereign.
He must get change for it, and in getting change he is content to
Supposing that in selling him a ticket the company said, "We will
change you a sovereign, but we shall charge you three halfpence for
doing so," what would my typical man exclaim? Yet that is the
equivalent of what the company does when it robs him of five minutes
twice a day.
You say I am dealing with minutiae. I am. And later on I will
Now will you kindly buy your paper and step into the train?